GHRL

Gene Information
 
Gene Symbol
GHRL
 
Aliases
MTLRP
 
Entrez Gene ID
 
Gene Name
Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
 
Chromosomal Location
3p26-p25
 
HGNC ID
 
Summary
This gene encodes ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein, which generates ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and is involved in regulating growth hormone release. Obestatin was initially reported to be an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 and was involved in satiety and decreased food intake; however, these findings are controversial. Recent reports show that obestatin is involved in inhibiting thirst and anxiety, improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, and increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes. Alternative promoters and alternative splicing result in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode different protein isoforms and some of which do not encode a protein but may regulate the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may also function in regulation of the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. (provided by RefSeq)
 
GeneCards ID
 
UniGene
 
RefSeq DNA
 
RefSeq mRNA
  e!Ensembl
Gene
Transcript  
Protein

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Definition Evidence Reference
GO:0000187 Biological process Activation of MAPK activity IMP 15350694
GO:0001937 Biological process Negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 15572208
GO:0006006 Biological process Glucose metabolic process NAS 17392603
GO:0007186 Biological process G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway TAS 16511605
GO:0008154 Biological process Actin polymerization or depolymerization IDA 15232612
Protein Information
 
Protein Name
Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
 
Function
Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation|Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity)
 
Refseq Proteins
 
UniProt
 
PDB
 
InterPro
 
Pfam
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF04643 Motilin_assoc Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
PF04644 Motilin_ghrelin Motilin/ghrelin
 
OMIM
 
Phenotype MIM ID
 
Interactions
STRING MINT I2D
ENSP00000335074 Q9UBU3

Associated Diseases

Diseases References
Acromegaly 12153740, 12727951, 19675514, 15910166, 14713276, 17466003, 12153739, 17984943, 12727973, 16821203, 16645012
Alcoholism 18422979, 16385185, 20440417, 18034691, 15520048, 17949465, 17407493, 18818026
Anorexia nervosa 16737142
Anovulation 15890737, 20096985
Arthritis 18677577, 17160656, 20346234, 18854515, 19788870, 19965946
   
References
 
Primary:

Administration of exogenous ghrelin in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on plasma levels of growth hormone, glucose, and insulin.

Guido Maurizio, Romualdi Daniela, De Marinis Laura, Porcelli Teresa, Giuliani Maddalena, Costantini Barbara, Lanzone Antonio
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. maurizioguido@libero.it
Fertil Steril. 2007 Jul;88(1):125-30. Epub 2007 Feb 2.
 
Supporting Literature:
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
GH,Glucose and Insulin 
 
 
Rotterdam criteria 
Related 
20 PCOS and 15control 
Injection of ghrelin seems to override the GH secretion defect in obese women with PCOS 
 
Obesity 
 
 
Related 
UK British/Irish origin-50 PCOS,28 controls and 22 body mass index (BMI)/fat mass-matched pairs 
In women with PCOS, serum ghrelin levels are suppressed, showing a negative relationship with HOMA2 IR and a blunted response to oral glucose. 
Leptin  
 
 
 
Related 
45 PCOS and 20 controls  
ghrelin level in women with PCOS reflects the metabolic and hormonal changes 
PYY,serum adiponectin,sCD40L,visfatin, sP-, sE-selectins, resistin 
Pancreatic islet adaptation to insulin resistance,low-grade chronic inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,atherosclerosis,obesity 
 
Rotterdam criteria 
Related 
 
The study provides the first evidence that lean untreated young PCOS women contribute to the so called "pancreatic islet adaptation to insulin resistance" because of ghrelin and PYY profiles 
 
chronic inflammation  
 
Rotterdam criteria 
Related 
40 PCOS and 20controls 
The study confirmed existing of low-grade chronic inflammation in early stage of visceral obesity in lean PCOS patients. The lost endogenous "islet adaptation to insulin resistance" may lead to endothelial dysfunction and promote acceleration of atherosclerosis. 

 

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