APLN

Gene Information
 
Gene Symbol
APLN
 
Aliases
APEL, XNPEP2
 
Entrez Gene ID
 
Gene Name
Apelin
 
Chromosomal Location
Xq25
 
HGNC ID
 
Summary
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.
 
GeneCards ID
 
UniGene
 
RefSeq DNA
 
RefSeq mRNA
  e!Ensembl
Gene
Transcript  
Protein

Gene Ontology (GO)

GO ID Ontology Definition Evidence Reference
GO:0006955 Biological process Immune response TAS 10525157
GO:0007165 Biological process Signal transduction TAS 9792798
GO:0007595 Biological process Lactation TAS 10525157
GO:0005102 Molecular function Receptor binding TAS 10525157
Protein Information
 
Protein Name
Apelin-13
 
Function
Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior
 
Refseq Proteins
 
UniProt
 
Pfam
Pfam Accession Pfam ID
PF15360 Apelin APJ endogenous ligand
 
OMIM
 
Interactions
STRING MINT I2D
ENSP00000305464 Q9ULZ1

Associated Diseases

Diseases References
Cardiovascular diseases 19829178, 17266543, 12681234, 17970534
Hypertrophy 16733497, 20055692
Inflammation 19100414, 19304942, 19278844, 18816630
Obesity 16723381, 19756893, 20233941, 16733497, 24642195
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) 24642195
   
References
 
Primary:

Lower serum apelin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Chang Chung-Yu, Tsai Yung-Chieh, Lee Chien-Hung, Chan Te-Fu, Wang Shih-Han, Su Juin-Huang
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Fertil Steril. 2011 Jun 30;95(8):2520-3.e1-2. Epub 2011 May 14.
 
Supporting Literature:
PubMed ID Associated gene/s Associated condition Genetic Mutation Diagnostic Criteria Association with PCOS Ethnicity Conclusion
 
PCOS, obesity 
 
 
Related 
45 women with PCOS and 45 age-matched controls 
In this study, serum apelin levels are lower in women with PCOS than in controls 

Unreviewed Literature:

PubMed / PMC ID
Title Type of study
26314870, PMC4556163
Evaluation of Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with PCOS and Therapeutic Effect of Drospirenone-Ethinylestradiol Plus Metformin. 
Effect of treatment 
25440474
Circulating anti-M??llerian hormone levels in relation to nutritional status and selected adipokines levels in polycystic ovary syndrome. 
Clinical study 
25374607, PMC4206935
Does polycystic ovary syndrome itself have additional effect on apelin levels? 
Clinical study 
24627671, PMC3940220
Plasma apelin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. 
Clinical study 
21575945
Lower serum apelin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. 
Clinical study 

 

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